Sunday, December 27, 2009

Cookstoves are a hot topic

If you were to list the top causes of death and sickness in the developing world, cooking would probably be in the top tier (I'd guess that lack of clean water is at the top). In villages and cities across the world, millions cook their food while engulfed in plumes of toxic gases and particulate matter (smoke and soot) from the fire underneath their cooking pots or in their cookstove. With women most often do the cooking and children often nearby, they bear the brunt of the toxic cloud. Gathering the fuel can also be risky, exposing the gatherer to bandits and other nefarious people. One study (PDF) estimates that there are 1.6 million premature deaths and 3.6% of the global burden of disease due to indoor air pollution caused by the use of solid fuels. (Inefficient cooking fires also leading to deforestation, erosion and other harm.)

This toxic burden has been receiving a lot of attention recently, including a long article in the December 21 & 28 issue of The New Yorker. When the issue arrived a few days ago, I made my usual scan of the table of contents to see what was inside. "A stove to transform the developing world"— the subtitle of an article called “Hearth Surgery” by Burkhard Bilger — caught my eye because I've long had an interest in domestic combustion devices.* So excited was I to see such an august publication covering something as humble as the cookstove that I immediately turned to the article and started reading.

In the first paragraph, I saw the name "Dale Andreatta" and just about fell over. Dale, it turns out, was one of my research colleagues during graduate school in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley. Even back then Dale had an interest in using engineering to solve difficult problems of the developing world. One project that I remember was solar water pasteurization with low-cost materials — some black trash bags, some sand, a hose, and a temperature switch.** I helped out on a few occasions, but at that time in my life I hadn't yet picked up experimental skills (I was into numerical modeling, the serious experimental work would come a few years later).

The Engineering Challenge

The New Yorker article (abstract only, subscription required for full text) picks up the story of cookstoves at "Stove Camp," an annual event in Cottage Grove, Oregon at the Aprovecho Research Center. There, dozens of engineers, designers and others get together to tackle the technical problems of stove design and manufacturing. For example, how can a stove be designed so that Ethiopians can reliably cook their staple injera (a flat-bread/crepe made with fermented teff batter)? Cooking regional cuisines right is critical because if a stove doesn’t work for the end user, it will probably be discarded.

"The world is absolutely littered with failed stoves," says Dean Still, the head of Aprovecho. And for good reason: "Building a stove is simple. Building a good stove is hard. Building a good cheap stove can drive an engineer crazy," writes Bilger. The designer has to contend with a variety of inputs (small twigs, big sticks, wood chips, paper scraps, all with varying levels of moisture), a variety of conditions, and much more. And then, a perfect design can be foiled by slight adjustments. Bilger comments on this: "Too many stoves start out as marvels of efficiency, they said, and are gradually modified into obsolescence. Once the engineer is gone, the local builder may widen the stove's mouth so it can burn larger sticks, only to draw in too much cold air. Or he'll make the stove out of denser bricks, not realizing that the air pockets in the clay are its best insulation. The better the stove, the tighter its tolerances, the easier it is to ruin."

With many past stove projects foiled by poor manufacturing quality or local stove builders who take liberties with the design, Aprovecho has decided to do what many other manufacturers do: go to China. Aprovecho has been collaborating with a manufacturing company in China to mass-produce stoves on a huge scale and with extremely high quality. This page as Aprovecho’s website has a short video about their new mass-produced cookstoves.

And, of course, cost is a major concern. In the article, Dean Still cites a retail price of $10 per stove as a target (this cost also assumes a lifetime for the stove, which wasn’t given in the article. A stove that lasts two years should cost much less than one that lasts five years.)

The Global Impact

Although the human damage caused by cookstoves has been getting attention for decades from the public health community, non-profits and international development organizations, cookstoves’ role in climate change has brought them out of the haze and into the news. Although stove fires emit the main greenhouse gas (carbon dioxide, CO2), their smoke is the concern. Solid fuel fires emit a complicated mixture of particulate matter (PM). The darkest portion of this PM (the part known as “black carbon,” a sooty material that is nearly pure carbon) can cause warming in several ways, including these two: 1) when suspended in the atmosphere, it absorbs sunlight and causes local atmospheric heating; 2) when it settles on snow or ice, it increases the melting rate of the snow or ice (by reducing its reflectivity). Researchers are finding that black carbon’s climate influence had been underestimated previously. Many have suggested that control of black carbon and other agents with short atmospheric lifetimes (like methane) can slow climate change in the near term while we figure out what to do about CO2 (a commentary in the Sacramento Bee explains, as does an article in the L.A. Times).

The second effect is especially important to Asia because glaciers in the Himalayas are the source of fresh water for millions on the continent. Slow-melting glaciers act as storage units, keeping the winter’s precipitation ‘on ice’ and slowly releasing it during the warm season. Already, we are seeing changes in the glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau, as new research from NASA shows.

It is unfortunate that the cookstove health crisis has festered for so long, killing and injuring millions, but perhaps the global focus on climate change will finally bring the resources and know-how to clear out the smoke that damages the world’s poorest and most vulnerable.

Additional Coverage of Cookstoves

  • A collection of links to information about cookstoves can be found at Professor Tami Bond's website at the University of Illinois or on Professor Kirk Smith's website at UC Berkeley.
  • Professor Veerabhadran Ramanathan from UC San Diego is leading Project Surya, which aims to reduce black carbon emissions in rural India, partially through introduction of more efficient stoves. Sustainable Futures has coverage of Ramanathan's talk at the American Geophysical Union conference in San Francisco a few weeks ago.
  • The Australian: “India’s killer cookers a recipe for disaster”
  • Worldwatch Institute has news about a new program in India
  • PBS Newshour has a story (transcript and video) about black carbon and cooking fires in India
  • Wired Science talks with Professor Ramanathan about his black carbon work
  • A video from KQED’s Quest program examines a project at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to build a better stove for the Darfur refugee camps, a place where gathering wood can be very dangerous.
  • The Lancet has a technical article examining how much mortality and disease could be avoided through distribution of 15 million improved stoves a year around India for 10 years. The authors estimate that the program would reduce premature deaths by more than 17%, while also reducing emission of climate-change-inducing black carbon.

Photo of woman and stoves in Soavinarivo, Madagascar from glowingz's flickr collection, subject to a Creative Commons License.

* Water heaters, industrial gas burners, radiant burners, and so on.

** The method of killing pathogens in water involved the following steps: In a sunny location, build a mesa-like platform using the sand, then hollow out the middle to make a well. Lay one sheet of plastic over the well and fill with water. Attach temperature switch to the hose, place hose in water. Cover water with another sheet of plastic. Given enough sun, the water will eventually reach temperatures that kill pathogens (given enough time – the hotter the water, the less time is required. Somewhere there is a table that shows the relationship but I don’t know where that is).

Random link from the archive: Recipe - Roasted Eggplant with Tomato and Basil, or "Basil Ghanouj"

Cross posted at La Vida Locavore.

Tuesday, December 08, 2009

Panoramic dining in the Hakone region of Japan

Dinner at the Mount View Hotel in Japan was one of the few times I’ll need to use the panoramic feature on my camera to capture a meal (photo above). At this hotel, a fixed menu dinner and breakfast were included in our room price, with meals taken in shifts in a large dining room that had seats for about 50 people in a reconfigurable group of low tables. Perhaps for logistical purposes, they serve almost everything at once, so when we arrived in the dining hall, our table for nine was covered with scores of dishes (the next photo below).

To the best of my memory, the meal consisted of a hot pot of dashi in which we cooked sweet potato, burdock root, konnyaku, meat, tofu, green onion; maki-sushi filled with cucumber, egg and fish; an apple stuffed with a scallop-studded tofu custard; cooked fish topped with daikon and mushroom; daikon-wrapped crab rolls; a few pieces of sashimi and nigari-sushi; salmon eggs and daikon; vegetable and prawn tempura; some kind of vegetable-tofu-rice cake in broth. At the end of the savory portion of the meal, we had a bowl of miso soup, rice and pickles (tsukemono). Dessert was a small cube of lightly-flavored chocolate custard and pieces of persimmon. The number of dishes was a bit over the top, in my opinion, but the overall quantity of food was not outrageous. I was full, but not overly stuffed. For the most part, the quality was good, the flavors interesting.


Breakfast was a similarly lavish affair (pictured in the photos below). Again, the table was loaded with food when we arrived, and there was also an area for rice, congee, pickles, and grilled fish on one end of the room. The pre-set portion of the meal had a variety of warm, cold and room temperature items, both savory and sweet. For good or bad, our table was not graced with the ultra-healthy and polarizing delicacy of natto, which I have somehow never tried despite almost ten visits to Japan (I'll try it next time! Unless the local soy specialists at Hodo Soy Beanery start making it...).



Friday, December 04, 2009

The black eggs of Owakudani in Japan

Two of the highlights of the Hakone region of Japan — an area about 1 1/2 hours south of Tokyo by train with beautiful mountains, lakes, and all sorts of attractions — are black eggs and a wooden handicraft technique called Yosegi-zaiku.

The black eggs are chicken eggs that have been hard-boiled in the natural hot springs of the Owakudani section of Hakone (the upper station of the cable cars). The sulfur and dissolved minerals in the hot water react with the egg to turn the shell a deep black, supposedly creating life-enhancing properties — Japanese folklore says that eating a black egg adds seven years to your life. Not being much of a fan of hard-boiled eggs, I wasn't excited by the black eggs. And the sulfurous hot springs give the eggs a bit of a rotten aroma, making them even less palatable to me.

The gift shops and restaurants outside of the cable-car stations sell the eggs for about $1 each, aided by Hello Kitty, as the photo below shows. The shirt worn by the left-hand kitty says "black eggs" and the sign that she's holding up says "Owakudani." The characters on the black egg between the kitties also says "Owakudani."

Preparing the eggs is quite an ordeal. Eggs are loaded into specially designed carriers at the base of the hill, then carried up to the thermal pool via a gondola. The staff unloads the eggs, cooks them in a pool, and sends them down the hill on the same gondola, where they are snapped up by eager tourists (500 yen for 5 eggs).

This photo shows the upper terminus of the egg gondola, with an empty carrier near the middle of the photo. Wires to the base of the hill are on the right side of the photo.

Here they are being cooked in the thermal pools, which were sending up photography-challenging clouds of steam. Note the woman on the right who is covering her nose. The gases emitted by the geothermal features include hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a gas that smells like rotten eggs. H2S is also toxic, so there were warning signs all over the place telling visitors to avoid spending too much time at the site.

Hello Kitty also advertises the yosegi-zaiku handicrafts by wearing a kimono that has a pattern similar to the parqueted wooden crafts.

Random link from the archive:The End of the Bees

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